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Draw the block diagram of computer and explain its various components
A computer can process data,
pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly complicated problems
quickly and accurately. A computer as shown in Fig. performs basically
five major computer operations or functions irrespective of their size and
make. These are
1) it accepts data or
instructions by way of input,
2) it stores data,
3) it can process data as
required by the user,
4) it gives results in the form
of output, and
5) it controls all operations
inside a computer.
discuss below each of these Computer operations
Fig : Basic computer Operations
1. Input: This is the process of entering
data and programs in to the computer system. You should know that computer is
an electronic machine like any other machine which takes as inputs raw data and
performs some processing giving out processed data. Therefore, the input unit
takes data from us to the computer in an organized manner for processing.
2. Storage: The process of saving data and
instructions permanently is known as storage. Data has to be fed into the
system before the actual processing starts. It is because the processing speed
of Central Processing Unit (CPU) is so fast that the data has to be provided to
CPU with the same speed. Therefore the data is first stored in the storage unit
for faster access and processing. This storage unit or the primary storage of
the computer system is designed to do the above functionality. It provides
space for storing data and instructions.
The storage unit performs the
following major functions:
• All data and instructions are
stored here before and after processing.
• Intermediate results of
processing are also stored here.
3. Processing: The task of performing
operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing. The
Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from the storage unit
and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the
type of data provided. It is then sent back to the storage unit.
4. Output: This is the process of producing results from the data for getting
useful information. Similarly the output produced by the computer after
processing must also be kept somewhere inside the computer before being given
to you in human readable form. Again the output is also stored inside the
computer for further processing.
5. Control: The manner how instructions are
executed and the above operations are performed. Controlling of all operations
like input, processing and output are performed by control unit. It takes care
of step by step processing of all operations inside the computer.
In order to carry out the
operations mentioned in the previous section the computer allocates the task
between its various functional units. The computer system is divided into three
separate units for its operation. They are
1) arithmetic logical unit
2) control unit.
3) central processing unit.
Arithmetic Logical Unit
(ALU) Logical Unit
Logical Unit :After you enter data
through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit. The actual
processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical
Unit. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from
storage unit when required. After processing the output is returned back to
storage unit for further processing or getting stored.
Control Unit (CU)
The next component of computer
is the Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done
in proper fashion. Control Unit is responsible for co ordinating
various operations using time signal. The control unit determines the sequence
in which computer programs and instructions are executed. Things like
processing of programs stored in the main memory, interpretation of the
instructions and issuing of signals for other units of the computer to execute
them. It also acts as a switch board operator when several users access the
computer simultaneously. Thereby it coordinates the activities of computer’s
peripheral equipment as they perform the input and output.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The ALU and the CU of a
computer system are jointly known as the central processing unit. You may call
CPU as the brain of any computer system. It is just like brain that takes all
major decisions, makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of
the computer functions by activating and controlling the operations.